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Welcome to the Journal of Extension

The Journal of Extension (JOE) creates opportunities for professionals and students to publish intellectual, creative work; nurtures emerging scholars and new authors for success; encourages professional development; and advances the theory and practice of Extension.

JOE is a rigorous, peer-reviewed journal that brings the scholarship of university outreach and engagement to educators and practitioners around the world. All submissions undergo initial review by the editor. If advanced by the editor, Feature, Research in Brief, and Ideas at Work submissions undergo double-blind peer review. Commentary and Tools of the Trade submissions are reviewed solely by the editor.

The acceptance rate for manuscripts submitted to JOE is currently 29.5%.

For more information about JOE, consult About JOE and JOE FAQs. For information about writing for JOE, consult Guidance for Authors and all associated materials and resources.

February 2018 Volume 56 Number 1

Editor's Page

As is tradition for the first edition of JOE each year, I open the Editor's Page with the section "JOE by the Numbers," where I report JOE acceptance rate, author, and readership data. The "Trending Articles" section draws attention to a new element on the JOE home page. And in "February JOE," I preview articles exploring Extension's role in facilitating gender equality, strategies for managing challenges internal to Extension, and other important subject matter.


The Event Horizon for the Horizon Report: Inclusivity in Extension Programs
Crayton, Jane
The Horizon Report for Cooperative Extension calls for Extension professionals to incorporate emergent technologies into programming; however, adoption and use of such technologies can be hampered due to critical diversity issues in the science, technology, engineering, and math industries. For Extension professionals to capitalize on the Horizon Report recommendations, we must embrace the report's call to action while also having an action plan for diversity and inclusivity. The challenge for Extension professionals goes beyond capitalizing on new technology trends; it has a broad scope and necessitates our considering critical issues surrounding those trends.

Research In Brief

Core Competencies for Successful Watershed Management Practitioners
Koundinya, Vikram; Baird, Anne; Klink, Jenna; Wolfson, Lois; Frankenberger, Jane; Bonnell, Joseph; Power, Rebecca

Urban Extension's New Nontraditional Offering: Parent-Child Reading Enhancement Program
Brandon, Dorothy P.; Tsamaase, Marea; Humphrey, Ronnie; Crenshaw, Kevin

Educational Preferences of West Virginia's Female Woodland Owners
Fegel, Tiffany; McGill, David W.; Gazal, Kathryn A.; Smaldone, David

Addressing the Community Impact of Forced Pooling on Local Drilling Decisions
Osmane, Sarah; Kelsey, Timothy

Assisting Mid-Atlantic Wine Industry Stakeholders in Developing Consumer-Centric Marketing Strategies: Internet Survey Results
Miller, Abigail; Kelley, Kathleen M.; Gardner, Denise M.; Govindasamy, Ramu; Hyde, Jeffrey; Rickard, Bradley; Storchmann, Karl

Meeting Couple and Coparenting Relationship Needs of Foster Caregivers: Perceptions of Georgia Child Welfare County Directors
Richardson, Evin W.; Futris, Ted G.; Duncan, Jeneé C.; Mallette, Jacquelyn K.

Ideas at Work

Developing and Managing an Advisory Board to Support Extension-Based Centers and Other Programs
Kern, Michael A.

Old-Fashioned Bus Trips: New Age Professional Development
Feldhues, Katherine; Epley, Hannah K.

Mobile Pyrolysis for Hazardous Fuels Reduction and Biochar Production in Western Forests
McAvoy, Darren; Dettenmaier, Megan; Kuhns, Mike

Tools of the Trade

Using Simulated Farm Case Studies to Teach Financial and Risk Management Concepts
Davis, Todd D.; Mark, Tyler B.; Shepherd, Johnathan D.

Evaluation Checklists for Agritourism and Direct Marketing Operations: Farmer and Extension Resources
Infante-Casella, Michelle; Schilling, Brian; Bamka, William; Komar, Stephen; Melendez, Meredith; Marxen, Lucas

Assessing Instructional Sensitivity Using the Pre-Post Difference Index: A Nontechnical Tool for Extension Educators
Adedokun, Omolola A.

Best Practices for Establishing Positive 4-H Youth Development Programming in Urban At-Risk Communities
Bovitz, Laura; Staffen, Marissa; Eppinger, Laura; Kesely, Abbie

A Framework for Success: The Importance of Board Member Orientation
Teuteberg, Dan; Brandt, Brian

VoiceThread: A Useful Program Evaluation Tool
Mott, Rebecca

Use of Prezi Software to Support and Expand Extension Outreach and Education
Elnakib, Sara


Political Ambition: Where Are All the Women?
Erickson, Jennifer; Hill, Dan; Solomon, Victoria
Why do so few women hold elected office on local government bodies? The answer to this question encompasses a combination of barriers to running for office. The research discussed in this article involved two surveys conducted in Wisconsin. The findings indicate that in addition to systemic barriers, such as time away from work, many women are hesitant to serve on local governing bodies for other reasons, including concerns related to confidence and potentially inaccurate perceptions. This cautiousness was not as evident in male potential candidates. Understanding the barriers women face may inform how Extension educators work to address skewed compositions of local governing bodies as part of capacity-building efforts.

4-S Positive Youth Development in Latin America: Professional Schools in Costa Rica
Lopes, Sandro; Geldhof, G. John; Bowers, Edmond P.; Thogmartin, Asia
As youth development programs established in the United States expand globally, researchers must evaluate their impacts in diverse contexts. The work described in this article established a baseline for assessing the impact of a 4-S youth program at professional technical high schools in Costa Rica. The 4-S program is equivalent to 4-H in English-speaking countries. Results indicate that members of the 4-S program exhibited significantly higher levels of positive youth development than youths in the comparison group (p < .001). We consider how these findings speak to the importance of promoting programs such as 4-S, and we conclude by discussing the implications of this work for practitioners.

Identifying Needs and Implementing Organizational Change to Improve Retention of Early-Career Agents
Vines, Karen A.; Cletzer, D. Adam; Westfall-Rudd, Donna; Lambur, Michael; Hunnings, Joseph R.; Vines, Neal T.
Retention of agents is important for the growth and stability of Cooperative Extension. A study of early-career agents in Virginia Cooperative Extension identified specific areas in which organizational change could be made to improve agent fit in the organization and long-term retention. As a result, numerous changes have been made, particularly associated with existing agents but also in work with prospective agents. Although this article relates specifically to Virginia, the challenges and solutions identified may be relevant to other programs and to national professional development organizations.

Using an Engaged Scholarship Symposium to Change Perceptions: Evaluation Results
Varkey, Sapna; Smirnova, Olga; Gallien, Tara Lee
Engaged scholarship (ES) entails a symbiotic relationship between the community and the university. This article reports results from an evaluation of an ES symposium Eastern Carolina University held to increase awareness of ES as a means for integrating research, teaching, and service and to potentially change unfavorable perceptions about ES through education and testimonials. After the symposium, participants were more likely to suggest that the university should put more weight on ES. On the basis of our findings, we believe that a symposium designed to encourage open dialogue among faculty, administrators, and Extension professionals can lead to increased awareness of and changes in attitudes toward ES.

Creating and Implementing Diverse Development Strategies to Support Extension Centers and Programs
Page, Christopher S.; Kern, Michael A.
Declining government funding for higher education requires colleges and universities to seek alternative revenue streams, including through philanthropic fund-raising. Extension-based subject matter centers and other programs can benefit from the thoughtful supplementation of traditional revenue sources with individual, corporate, and private foundation philanthropy. In this article, we examine funding strategies identified in existing Extension literature and then describe the development strategy created for the William D. Ruckelshaus Center as a case study, emphasizing the importance of strong board leadership and cultivation of a diverse mix of income streams.

Development and Evaluation of a Parent-Engagement Curriculum to Connect Latino Families and Schools
Hurtado, Ghaffar A.; Olson, Kathleen A.; Alvarez de Davila, Silvia; Campoverde, Victoria
Parent–school engagement is a contributor to student achievement, but few relevant programs exist for immigrant Latino families. This article describes the design, pilot implementation, and evaluation of a parent-engagement Extension program, developed and implemented in Spanish. The purpose of the program is to help parents develop and/or strengthen their relationships with school staff and teachers, build skills in navigating the U.S. school system, and increase their self-efficacy for supporting their children's success in school. Development of the program curriculum comprised a participatory approach that involved input from cultural guides and focus group sessions conducted in Spanish. Evaluation results indicate positive changes related to most program goals and increased parent–school engagement.

Feasibility of Implementing a School Nutrition Intervention That Addresses Policies, Systems, and Environment
Bergman, Jacqueline J.; Linnell, Jessica D.; Scherr, Rachel E.; Ginsburg, David C.; Brian, Kelley M.; Carter, Rosemary; Donohue, Susan; Klisch, Shannon; Lawry-Hall, Suzanne; Pressman, Jona; Soule, Kat
We conducted a process evaluation of the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a multicomponent school-based nutrition program, when implemented in partnership with University of California (UC) CalFresh and UC Cooperative Extension (UCCE). There were positive impacts on participating students, but results varied across counties, possibly due to variation in fidelity to the curriculum and implementation of program components. Our evaluation identified the strength of UCCE in delivering nutrition education and a need for additional support and training for building capacity to effect change in school policies, systems, and environment. Because educators throughout Extension are working to integrate programs addressing policies, systems, and environment, our results may have applicability in other Extension programs.

Foundations and Applications of Theory in the First Impressions Program
Brown, Laura E.; McDonald, John; Chase, Lisa C.; Sewake, Geoffrey; Stencel, Beverly; Northrop, Andy; Kelly, Miriah; Faulkner, Ryan
The First Impressions program was designed to help communities learn about their strengths and shortcomings through the "fresh eyes" of first-time visitors. This Extension-led community assessment program has been implemented in over 500 communities since the 1990s, yet scant literature exists regarding the program's theoretical foundations or best practices for implementation or evaluation. To address increasing interest in the program among Extension professionals nationwide, we aim to encourage new scholarship regarding the program's use and impacts by providing an overview of how the program works; a discussion of theoretical foundations of the program from geography, urban planning, and psychology literature; and suggestions for improving program efficacy.

Building Capacity within Extension to Address Animal Agriculture in a Changing Climate
Powers, Crystal; Stowell, Rick; Heemstra, Jill; Whitefield, Elizabeth; Harrison, Joe; Schmidt, David; Jacobson, Larry; Smith, David; Mukhtar, Saqib; Knox, Pam; Risse, Mark; Hawkins, Gary; Pronto, Jenn
The Animal Agriculture in a Changing Climate project was formed to build capacity among Extension professionals and other livestock advisors to address climate change issues. We offer a case study of how a small team can build national capacity for new topics. We used a coordinated multiregional approach to leverage national efforts applied to locally relevant climatology, production systems, and climate issues. Key insights on overcoming challenges centered on (a) engaging audiences with local, historical trends and agricultural impacts, (b) beginning with adaptation, rather than mitigation of climate change, and (c) providing strategies for effectively communicating science during controversy. Program participants found the project valuable and substantially increased their ability and motivation to apply climate science.

Building the Foundation for a Health Education Program for Rural Older Adults
Jung, Seung Eun; Parker, Stephany; Hermann, Janice; Phelps, Joshua; Shin, Yeon Ho
We explored rural older adults perceptions of health to inform health promotion program development, using social marketing as our framework. Participants in seven focus groups viewed independence and holistic health as indicators of health and identified healthful eating and physical activity as actions to promote health. Barriers to these actions included physical limitations, social factors, financial considerations, motivation issues, and information confusion. Participants desired education that improves knowledge and skills, provides socialization opportunities, and occurs in familiar, affordable locations. Our findings can be useful to others developing health programming for rural-residing older adults. Also, we show that applying social marketing principles during formative assessment can be helpful in tailoring programs to audience interests and concerns.

The Journal of Extension

Debbie Allen, Editor
Journal of Extension

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